Thursday, October 24, 2013


Isobutanol is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH. This colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic smell is mainly used as a solvent. Its isomers include n-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are important industrially.
Isobutanol is produced by the carbonylation of propylene. Two methods are practiced industrially, hydroformylation is more common and generates a mixture of isobutyraldehydes, which are hydrogenated to the alcohols and then separated. Reppe carbonylation is also practiced.
And isobutanol could indeed function as a relatively effective substitute for gasoline — isobutanol releases just around 82% of the heat energy that gasoline does when burned, as compared to the 67% that ethanol does. And, perhaps more importantly, isobutanol doesn’t possess the same significant drawbacks that ethanol does — in particular, it doesn’t possess ethanol’s unfortunate tendency to absorb water, and thus doesn’t damage conventional engines and pipelines in the same way that pure ethanol does. So, while pure ethanol would only be a viable replacement for gasoline if all of the infrastructure in use today was completely replaced, isobutanol cold simply replace gasoline as is — no new infrastructure needed.
Isobutanol — a high-performance biofuel that closely matches the properties of gasoline — can be produced from waste plant materials through the combined actions of a common fungus and a common bacteria, according to new research from the University of Michigan. When paired up together, the fungus Trichoderma reesei, and the bacteria Escherichia coli, can effectively create the biofuel isobutanol from materials such as cornstalks and plant leaves.
While the production of a useful biofuel is impressive enough, the researchers think that the same principle used to produce the biofuel could be used to produce other useful chemicals, such as plastics.
Isobutanol is also produced naturally during the fermentation of carbohydrates and may also be a byproduct of the decay process of organic matter. The biosynthetic pathway used to produce isobutanol was first discovered in species of bacteria from the genus Clostridium. This pathway has been genetically engineered into several species of microorganisms which are more easily manipulated by current scientific methods than microorganisms of the genus Clostridium.
And isobutanol could indeed function as a relatively effective substitute for gasoline — isobutanol releases just around 82% of the heat energy that gasoline does when burned, as compared to the 67% that ethanol does. And, perhaps more importantly, isobutanol doesn’t possess the same significant drawbacks that ethanol does — in particular, it doesn’t possess ethanol’s unfortunate tendency to absorb water, and thus doesn’t damage conventional engines and pipelines in the same way that pure ethanol does. So, while pure ethanol would only be a viable replacement for gasoline if all of the infrastructure in use today was completely replaced, isobutanol cold simply replace gasoline as is — no new infrastructure needed.
Edit by

Friday, October 11, 2013

Have a knowledge of phenol

A phenol is one of a number of chemically active compounds which are found throughout nature, especially in plants. Their molecules each include a hydroxyl functional group (OH) bonded to the ring of an aromatic compound — a molecule that includes at least one ring of carbon atoms. Phenols exhibit a wide range of properties; some are heralded for their health benefits, while others are deadly poisons. Some have important industrial uses as drugs or food additives. The word phenol may also refer to carbolic acid (C6H5OH), the simplest of this group of chemicals.
Phenol is the simplest member of a family of compounds in which an -OH group is attached directly to a benzene ring. Phenol itself is the only one of the family that you are likely to need to know about for UK A level purposes.
There is an interaction between the delocalised electrons in the benzene ring and one of the lone pairs on the oxygen atom. This has an important effect on both the properties of the ring and of the -OH group.
Pure phenol is a white crystalline solid, smelling of disinfectant. It has to be handled with great care because it causes immediate white blistering to the skin. The crystals are often rather wet and discoloured.
Phenol is so inexpensive that it attracts many small-scale uses. It once was widely used as an antiseptic, especially as carbolic soap, from the early 1900s through the 1970s. It is a component of industrial paint strippers used in the aviation industry for the removal of epoxy, polyurethane and other chemically resistant coatings. Phenol derivatives are also used in the preparation of cosmetics including sunscreens, hair colorings, and skin lightening preparations. Concentrated phenol liquids are commonly used in the surgical treatment of ingrown toenails to prevent a section of the toenail from growing back. This process is called phenolization.
When phenol donates a hydrogen ion to water, the electron pair remaining on the oxygen atom becomes delocalized, meaning that it becomes redistributed into the phenyl ring and cannot be assigned with certainty to any one pair of atoms. This effect is possible because of the π bonds in the phenyl ring (bonds that form between overlapping unhybridized p-orbitals). In cyclohexanol, on the other hand, all of the carbons in the ring structure share single bonds and there are no π bonds, so the negative charge on the oxygen does not become delocalized if the hydrogen is donated to water.
In a phenol extraction, the acidity of the whole mixture is important to effectively extract the DNA and RNA. Chemists recommend that the phenol should have a pH higher than 7 so that the water layer can successfully gather the DNA. At a pH of 4.5, which is already considered acidic, the RNA can already be gathered by the water phase. To change the phenol’s acidity or alkalinity, some chemicals are added, such as the compound tris or N-ethylmorpholine.
Edit by

Tuesday, September 17, 2013


Methylal is a new type of solvent. Methylal has the characteristics of solubility, no toxicity and no air pollution. Methylal can replace traditional solvent of acetone, benzene, toluene, Freon, etc. and can be used in the industries of fungicides, industrial detergents, leather polishing agent, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. Methylal greatly reduces the discharge of toxic organic compounds and reduces atmospheric pollution. Methylal is a green and environmentally friendly product and has a broad development prospect.
Methylal, also called dimethoxymethane (DMM), has the molecular formula CH3O-CH2-OCH3.  It is a liquid at ambient temperature and pressure, with a boiling point of 42.3°C, flash point of -17.8°C and a melting point of -104.8°C.
Methylal hazards and first aid measures
Methylal is irritating to mucous membrane and has anesthetic effects. Inhalation of vapors may cause nose and throat irritation. Inhalation of high-concentration methylal can cause dizziness and other symptoms. Methylal is harmful to the eyes and the hurt can last for several days. Long-term methylal contact can cause dry skin.
Methylal is a condensation product of methanol and formaldehyde and has low toxicity and corrosiveness, which makes it an ideal substitute solvent for benzene, toluene, xylene, acetone, etc. which are for example commonly used in painting industries.
First aid measures
Skin Contact: Remove contaminated clothing, and wash the skin thoroughly with soap and water.
Eye contact: Lift the eyelids; Wash the eyes with moving water or saline water, and go to see a doctor.
Methylal inhalation: Rapidly move from the scene to places with fresh air; maintain the respiratory tract clear; if breathing is difficult, oxygen should be provided; if breathing stops, artificial respiration should be immediately carried out, and a doctor should be sent.
Methylal ingestion: Drink enough warm water; apply the emetic method and go to see a doctor.
Methylal clean production technology
Methylal has excellent physical and chemical properties, good degreasing capability and volatile property. Methylal can be used as detergent for replacing F11, F113, and chlorinated solvents. Therefore, methylal is a environmental protective product for replacing Freon to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and reduce air pollution. Due to its dissolution characteristic, methylal can be used as a substitute for part of the halogen hydrocarbon solvent. Methylal has good miscibility with many solvents, especially LPG, of DME. Methylal has low boiling point which is helpful to improve the steam pressure and atomization rate of aerosol. Methylal has excellent solubility in water and provides good prospects for the development of water-based aerosol.
As methylal is regarded as being an environmentally friendly solvent, it can replace many of the oil downstream products of which are relatively toxic solvents and chemicals.  In the past two years, China in particular has led the way and implemented methylal use in many areas.
Production technology of high-concentration methylal
Methylal synthesis uses sulfuric acid as catalyst at all times, but the sulfuric acid has severe corrosion to the equipment. With the development of methylal technology, solid resin is used as catalyst, the combination technique of reaction and distillation is developed, and then yield and quality are greatly improved. With the help of methylal plant, general-concentration methylal is processed into low-concentration methylal, 92% methylal is pressed into the differential pressure distillation column for pressure distillation. Pressure is controlled at 1.2-1.5Mpa, the top temperature of the distillation column is controlled at 120 ℃, and the bottom temperature of the distillation column is controlled at 135 ℃. High concentration methylal is produced at the bottom, distillate at the top of column flow back to the reaction column and thepressure distillation column.
The combination of methylal physical properties such as low molecular weight, minimal viscosity and high solvent power make methylal an ideal candidate for application in environmentally friendly paint strippers.
How far does methanol-formaldehyde-methylal chain can go?
The methylal technology is produced by the condensation reaction of methanol and formaldehyde. The operation of a huge amount of methylal devices brings more space for methanol demands. The chain of methanol-formaldehyde-methylal looks stable and has good demand support. The demands are increased for methanol and formaldehyde plant enterprises of overcapacity. However, a series of market performance reflects the market space of methylal is very small, and the chain of methanol-formaldehyde-methylal chain will be at the risk of out of control.

Thursday, September 5, 2013


Dimethylformamide (DMF) is an organic compound that is used as a solvent for many products, including lacquers, pigments and dyes. Known as a volatile organic compound (VOC), DMF can endanger both humans and wildlife, but the threat is regarded as minimal because it does not occur in nature and isn't encountered by humans outside of occupational settings. Dimethylformamide is not stable when strong acids or bases are around it, and it hydrolyzes back into its original state of dimethylamine and formic acid. According to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), dimethylformamide is hazardous to health, flammable, reacts to skin on contact and poses a minimal threat of reacting with other chemicals.
Recently we showed how crystallization in microemulsions could lead directly to the most stable polymorph, thereby leapfrogging Ostwald’s rule of stages. Here we consider in more details the crystallization of mefenamic acid from dimethylformamide microemulsions. Crystallization of mefenamic acid from bulk DMF has previously been shown to produce only the metastable Form II irrespective of the supersaturation or temperature.
Dimethylformamide is a polar (hydrophilic) aprotic solvent with a high boiling point. It facilitates reactions that utilizes polar mechanisms, such as SN2 reactions. Dimethylformamide can be synthesized from methyl formate and dimethylamine or by reaction of dimethylamine with carbon monoxide. Dimethylformamide is not stable in the presence of strong bases such as sodium hydroxide or strong acids such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid and is hydrolyzed back into formic acid and dimethylamine, especially at elevated temperatures.
There are several ways to form dimethylformamide, all of which involve the use of dimethylamine. For smaller production runs, dimethylamine is catalyzed with carbon monoxide and methanol or with methyl formate. In larger, laboratory-scale productions, formic acid and dimethylamine react together to create this solvent.
In contrast, we show that stable Form I can be produced from DMF microemulsions provided the lowest supersaturations that can achieve crystallization are used; these correspond to initial supersaturations that are significantly higher than those commonly used in bulk solution crystallizations, owing to the large decrease in supersaturation that occurs when a nuclei grows in a 3D-nanoconfined droplet. Increasing the supersaturation above the minimum required for crystallization leads to increasing proportions of metastable Form II crystals.
As a solvent, or a chemical that mixes with other liquids, dimethylformamide is used in the formation of many products that require a strong chemical reaction. Its high boiling point leaves it with low evaporation potential, so it will not quickly dissipate when used with other chemicals at high temperatures. Many plastics and curing processes, such as the curing done to leather, need this chemical to complete the product or process. It also can be used to break down many organic compounds.
Dimethylformamide is a neutral compound, so it does not react very well when paired with a strong acid or base. A strong base would be a compound such as sodium hydroxide, and a strong acid would be something such as sulfuric acid. When a base or acid is paired with this compound, it will revert to its two original components. This reverting process is increased if placed in a high-temperature vat.
Co-exposure of noise, DMF and TOL can affect the ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate among synthetic leather workers. Noise exposure may have obviously higher effect than chemical exposure.
Dimethylformamide is a VOC, meaning it is dangerous for humans and wildlife. It is not made in nature and isn't encountered outside certain work settings, so it is not regarded as an especially hazardous compound. Testing has shown that DMF can easily and quickly transfer from dirt to groundwater and will quickly spread through any body of water. Dimethylformamide also has been shown to cause cancer and chronically affect organs such as the lungs and heart.
The MSDS, which grades all compounds on a scale of 0 to 4 with 4 being a serious hazard, shows DMF to be a hazard. The worst risk is contacting or touching the chemical, which is rated as a 3. Both health and flammability risks earn a 2; DMF also must be stored away from high temperatures. The reactivity level is only 1, so it should not react with other compounds in an adverse way.
This article is from .

Monday, August 26, 2013


Epichlorohydrin (abbreviated ECH) is an organochlorine compound and an epoxide. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, garlic-like odor, moderately soluble in water, but miscible with most polar organic solvents. Epichlorohydrin is a highly reactive compound and is used in the production of glycerol, plastics, epoxy glues and resins, and elastomers. In contact with water, epichlorohydrin hydrolyzes to 3-MCPD, a carcinogen found in food.
Epichlorohydrin (EPI) is an extremely versatile chemical intermediate used in a wide variety of applications. Approximately 76% of the world’s consumption of (EPI) is used to make epoxy resins.
EPI is flammable. Direct, prolonged contact with pure EPI as liquid can severely damage the skin and eyes. Vapors may also produce eye irritation and damage to cornea of the eye. EPI is a probable carcinogen, a poison that can cause death at higher exposures, a mutagen and a skin sensitizer. 
Occupational exposures are possible; however, consumer exposures are not likely because end-use products are expected to contain only trace levels of EPI. Industrial operations use EPI in closed systems and are designed with engineering controls to minimize personnel and environmental exposures.
EPI is considered a hazardous chemical. If released into the environment, however, it biodegrades rapidly.
CAS no:106-89-8

Use dasan organic solvent,epichlorohydrin is rodenticideg lift or intermediates, and epoxyresin,synthesi sofglycerol and other chemical products and intermediates.

Monday, August 12, 2013


Formaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula CH2O or HCHO. It is the simplest aldehyde, hence its systematic name methanal. The common name of the substance comes from its similarity and relation to formic acid.
Formaldehyde is a chemical compound that is widely used in industrial manufacturing and a number of other industries. Many people are familiar with it in the form of formalin, an aqueous solution of formaldehyde that is used as an embalming preservative. This chemical is toxic, known to cause cancer and a variety of other health problems, and for this reason, most people make an effort to avoid it. 
This chemical is the simplest of the aldehydes, chemical compounds that include a terminal carbonyl group. A carbonyl group is a group of atoms that includes a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom; the chemical formula for formaldehyde is HCHO, making it a useful building block for other, more complex aldehydes. Pure formaldehyde is a colorless gaseous compound, and it is extremely reactive. For this reason, it is often mixed into other chemical compounds to form a stable substance. 
In addition to being used in things like glues, preservatives, antiseptics, resins, paints, film processing, and embalming, formaldehyde is also abundant in the atmosphere. It is one of the many byproducts of combustion, and it is also formed through atmospheric reactions, making it a major component of smog. As a result, it can be a challenge to avoid it. 
High levels of exposure can lead to cancer in the long term, and respiratory problems, skin conditions, and inflammation of the mucus membranes in the short term. Allergies to formaldehyde can also cause serious health problems. This chemical is especially dangerous for children. 
Most nations have clear laws that dictate the amount of formaldehyde that can be used in things like housing materials, but it can also be generated through fuel burning stoves, It is also found in cheaply constructed “temporary” structures, thanks to the relaxation of safety standards for such buildings. 
The issue of formaldehyde exposure was brought to the forefront in the United States in 2007, when several media outlets broke the story that temporary trailers erected by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for victims of Hurricane Katrina had extremely high levels of formaldehyde. The chemical has also been found in temporary structures on school campuses and in many older homes. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests that people can reduce the risk of exposure by using dehumidifiers and ventilating structures, especially those with fuel burning stoves and heaters, although structures with high levels of ambient formaldehyde should be renovated or destroyed.

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Formic Acid

1. Product Name: Formic Acid
2. Chemical Formula: HCOOH
3. Appearance: Colorless transparent liquid
4. Specifications:
A) Formic Acid 85%Min
HCOOH 85%min
Fe(Fe3 ) 0.0005%max
Chloride(Cl-) 0.005%max
Sulphate(SO42-) 0.002%max
Residue 0.006%max
B)Formic Acid 90%Min
HCOOH 90%min
Fe(Fe3 ) 0.0001%max
Chloride(Cl-) 0.003%max
Sulphate(SO42-) 0.001%max
Residue 0.006%max
5. Packing: 30kgs、250kgs plastic drum,1mt IBC DRUM 20mts in the 20'FCL  ISO TANK or as your request
6. Application:
In medical industryit is used in making Amidopyrin, vitamin B and many other medcines. Formic Acid is used in producing methanamide, diethyl formamide, rubber age resister, dying, leather and so on. It is aslo an important material for pesticide such as Triazone. In other way Formic Acid is considerable used in green fodder storage.

the pharmaceutical industry: caffeine, dipyrone, aminopyrine vitamin B1, etc.;
2, the pesticide industry: triadimefon, triadimefon, paclobutrazol, insecticidal ether;
3, the chemical industry: dimethyl formamide, formamide, antioxidant, etc.;
4, the leather industry: leather tanning preparations;
5, printing and dyeing industry: the acidic dye;
6, the rubber industry: natural rubber flocculants;
7, the pickling of iron and steel industry: steel plate, steel and other steel products, etc.;
8, the paper industry: pulp preparation, etc.;
9, the food industry: food disinfection, preservation;
10, animal husbandry: ensilage preservation

 Formic Acid

Friday, July 5, 2013

Glacial acetic acid

Annual capacity of our glacial acetic acid is 350,000.the raw material is methanol.
we use a new technical process to produce: Methanol decomposition.
the most important characteristic of this way are as following:
mild oder; high quality--can reach 99.99%min; low cost--30% lower than oil decomposition and ethanol decomposition way. Other name:GAA,acetic acid,CH3COOH

Industry grade
Glacial acetid acid% ≥99.9
water content% ≤0.15
Acetaldehyde % ≤0.05
Formic acid% ≤0.06
Iron % ≤0.00004
Residue after evaporation% ≤0.01
Permanganate time≥30min
Food grade
Glacial acetid acid% ≥99.00
As % ≤0.0001
Freezing point ≥14.5C
Evaporates the resdual% ≤0.01
The heavy metal (as Pb counts) % ≤0.0002
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE Experiment minute ≥0.15

we have 99.9%min glacial acetic acid,99.8%min glacial acetic acid,90%min glacial acetic acid,80%min glacial acetic acid or according to customer's special request.

20mts/IBC drum 20 drums in each 20ft container=20mts/20ft container
220kgs/HDPE drum 80 drums in each 20ft container=17.6mts/20ft container
30kgs/HDPE drum 785 drums in each 20ft container=23.55mts/20ft container
Usage: Widely used in textile industry, fiber industry, Pharmacia industry, pesticide industry, dyestuff industry, plastic industry our products are exported to countries all around the world such as :USA,Germany,
Turkey, Russia,Ukraine, Brazil, Chile, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, South Africa etc and
enjoy a good reputation in our customers.